This document was produced by a group operating under the W3C Patent Policy. W3C maintains a public list of any patent disclosures made in connection with the deliverables of the group; that page also includes instructions for disclosing a patent. An individual who has actual knowledge of a patent which the individual believes contains Essential Claim(s) must disclose the information in accordance with section 6 of the W3C Patent Policy.
Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) 2.1 defines how to make Web content more accessible to people with disabilities. Accessibility involves a wide range of disabilities, including visual, auditory, physical, speech, cognitive, language, learning, and neurological disabilities. Although these guidelines cover a wide range of issues, they are not able to address the needs of people with all types, degrees, and combinations of disability. These guidelines also make Web content more usable by older individuals with changing abilities due to aging and often improve usability for users in general.
WCAG 2.1 is developed through the W3C process in cooperation with individuals and organizations around the world, with a goal of providing a shared standard for Web content accessibility that meets the needs of individuals, organizations, and governments internationally. WCAG 2.1 builds on WCAG 2.0 [WCAG20], which in turn built on WCAG 1.0 [WAI-WEBCONTENT] and is designed to apply broadly to different Web technologies now and in the future, and to be testable with a combination of automated testing and human evaluation. For an introduction to WCAG, see the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) Overview.
The individuals and organizations that use WCAG vary widely and include Web designers and developers, policy makers, purchasing agents, teachers, and students. In order to meet the varying needs of this audience, several layers of guidance are provided including overall principles, general guidelines, testable success criteria and a rich collection of sufficient techniques, advisory techniques, and documented common failures with examples, resource links and code.
Sufficient and Advisory Techniques - For each of the guidelines and success criteria in the WCAG 2.0 document itself, the working group has also documented a wide variety of techniques. The techniques are informative and fall into two categories: those that are sufficient for meeting the success criteria and those that are advisory. The advisory techniques go beyond what is required by the individual success criteria and allow authors to better address the guidelines. Some advisory techniques address accessibility barriers that are not covered by the testable success criteria. Where common failures are known, these are also documented. See also Sufficient and Advisory Techniques in Understanding WCAG 2.0.
Note that even content that conforms at the highest level (AAA) will not be accessible to individuals with all types, degrees, or combinations of disability, particularly in the cognitive language and learning areas. Authors are encouraged to consider the full range of techniques, including the advisory techniques, as well as to seek relevant advice about current best practice to ensure that Web content is accessible, as far as possible, to this community. Metadata may assist users in finding content most suitable for their needs.
An alternative for time-based media or audio description of the prerecorded video content is provided for synchronized media, except when the media is a media alternative for text and is clearly labeled as such.
Where pauses in foreground audio are insufficient to allow audio descriptions to convey the sense of the video, extended audio description is provided for all prerecorded video content in synchronized media.
If any audio on a Web page plays automatically for more than 3 seconds, either a mechanism is available to pause or stop the audio, or a mechanism is available to control audio volume independently from the overall system volume level.
For prerecorded audio-only content that (1) contains primarily speech in the foreground, (2) is not an audio CAPTCHA or audio logo, and (3) is not vocalization intended to be primarily musical expression such as singing or rapping, at least one of the following is true:
All functionality of the content is operable through a keyboard interface without requiring specific timings for individual keystrokes, except where the underlying function requires input that depends on the path of the user's movement and not just the endpoints.
audio or video synchronized with another format for presenting information and/or with time-based interactive components, unless the media is a media alternative for text that is clearly labeled as such
Notably, the prognostic role of serum LDH in oncology has long been recognized. LDH is a key enzyme in the process of energy production in cancer cells, it catalyzes the conversion of pyruvate to lactate in hypoxic conditions . Since its function in anaerobic metabolism, cancer cells grow even after their rapid proliferation that leads to low-oxygen conditions in the tumor microenvironment . Thus, LDH plays an important role in tumor progression and maintenance [21, 22]; inhibition of LDH inhibits tumor progression and has been considered for the therapeutic target of cancer energy metabolism . LDH levels are increased in response to tissue injury or during disease states; LDH could be a marker of tumor burden for advanced cancer patients . Higher LDH level was related with shorter survival in various types of cancer. In patients with non-small cell lung cancer (N = 2531), normal baseline serum LDH levels were significantly associated with better survival . Similar reports were seen in colorectal cancer , nasopharyngeal carcinoma [3, 4], breast cancer [8, 9], prostate cancer , germ cell cancer [11, 12], and melanoma [13, 14].
The federal income tax law as it applies to individuals, corporations, and partnerships. Topics emphasized include individual taxable income and property transactions. Additional topics include corporate taxable income and income from partnerships and S corporations.
Students prepare individual tax returns under the IRS sponsored Volunteer Income Tax (VITA) preparation program interfacing with actual tax payers from the community using tax preparation software. Responsibilities associated with tax ethics, taxpayer identification, confidentiality and e-filing will be emphasized.
Students integrate learning across disciplines contributing to the ACL degree by practicing in the multi-disciplinary methods of american studies, considering case studies in major issues of american civic life, and completing individual projects that demonstrate connections between historical and cultural studies and a contemporary problem to be addressed in internships (ACL 497), in the capstone course (ACL 490), and in leadership positions after graduation.
An overview of the scientific method and its application to the analysis of physical evidence as it impacts investigations and court proceedings. Topics include the study of basic methods of documentation, collection and preservation of physical evidence; general schemes for the analysis of chemical and biological evidence; identification and individualization of firearms, fingerprints, imprints, documents, hairs, fibers, blood and body fluids, paint, drugs and poisons, patterns, and other materials associated with crimes. The course material is reinforced through the use of actual case studies, hands-on exercises, and class exercises.
Provides students with knowledge of basic concepts of case and crime scene investigation; scene and investigative personnel management; nature of investigative personnel roles; steps in the processing of scenes and evidence; methods of documentation; general and specialized techniques for the recognition, identification, and individualization of evidence; sources of investigative information; interview techniques; reconstruction of events; and legal and ethical considerations during criminal investigations.
Painting, sculpture, and architecture from the Renaissance to contemporary times, including works by Botticelli, Leonardo, Michelangelo, Caravaggio, Monet, and Picasso, examined in social, historical, and aesthetic context. Course teaches analytical and viewing skills vital for thinking critically about the visual arts.
Introduction to the fundamental principles of biology including anatomy, morphology, metabolism, cell physiology, evolution, genetics, development, and diversity of animals. Topics link structure with function from the molecular level to the physiological level. For science majors and minors. Lab fees required. Lecture, 2 hours; Laboratory, 4 hours
Introduction to the fundamental principles of biology including anatomy, morphology, metabolism, cell physiology, evolution, genetics, development, and diversity of plants. Topics link structure with function from the molecular level to the physiological level. For science majors and minors. Lab fees required. Lecture, 2 hours; Laboratory, 4 hours.
A survey of human's functional anatomy starting at the molecular level then progressing through various cell and tissue types, organs and organ systems. Labs are anatomically oriented and designed to examine gross anatomy of the human body.
Functional anatomy of the human body is further explored focusing on physiological responses at the molecular and cellular level then progressing through various cell and tissue types, organs and organ systems. Labs are physiologically oriented and designed to examine human physiological responses.
Study of the external morphology of plants and their internal structures, including cells, tissues, and organs. Each feature is studied within an evolutionary context focusing on developmental and functional aspects, relating how the features arose and their possible functions. The lab consists of experience with the use of microscopes, the sectioning and staining of plant materials, and the observation of plant structures. Lecture, 3 hours, laboratory, 3 hours. 2b1af7f3a8