***PDF Product: This product is a PDF download and will require the end user to print/cut-out the components. This is intended for purchase by international buyers due to high international shipping costs of the normal cards. Please consider the normal cards if you're within North America!***The Snake Oil Expansion adds even more variety to Shoot N' Skedaddle. 27 new cards include:+Nine new characters (2 Lawmen, 2 Outlaws, 5 Neutral)+A Snake Oil deck consisting 10 different salves and tonics.+Four new special cards for each deck.These new additions shuffle straight into your normal Shoot N' Skedaddle decks, adding more variety and some unique character classes.The 'White Hat' is a powerful symbol of justice, whereas the 'Yellow Belly' is a good-fer-nothin' troublemaker who feeds off his allies. The inventor takes firearms to new and exciting heights while the Snake Oil Salesman peddles his questionable wares...Rules and notes have been added to the rulebook for this expansion.
"Snake Oil Salesman." The phrase conjures up images of seedy profiteers trying to exploit an unsuspecting public by selling it fake cures. In fact, the Oxford English Dictionary defines snake oil as "a quack remedy or panacea." What the OED does not note, however, is that the history of snake oil is linked to an often forgotten chapter of Asian-American history.
Made from the oil of the Chinese water snake, which is rich in the omega-3 acids that help reduce inflammation, snake oil in its original form was effective, especially when used to treat arthritis and bursitis. Jagrap/Flickr hide caption
Because the words "snake oil" are so evocative, it has been a favorite go-to phrase for politicians and lobbying groups on both sides of the aisle. Earlier this month, Kentucky Sen. Mitch McConnell called his opponent in the Republican primary, Tea Party candidate Matt Bevin, a snake oil salesman in a campaign mailer. While campaigning for a second term last year, President Obama referred to the Romney-Ryan tax plan as "trickle-down snake oil" at a rally. In 2008, the Natural Resources Defense Council Action Fund took out full-page ads in The Washington Post to denounce then-President George W. Bush's plan to drill in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, calling it "100 percent snake oil."
So how did a legitimate medicine become a symbol of fraud? The origins of snake oil as a derogatory phrase trace back to the latter half of the 19th century, which saw a dramatic rise in the popularity of "patent medicines." Often sold on the back pages of newspapers, these tonics promised to cure a wide variety of ailments including chronic pain, headaches, "female complaints" and kidney trouble. In time, all of these false "cures" began to be referred to as snake oil.
As word of the healing powers of Chinese snake oil grew, many Americans wondered how they could make their own snake oil here in the United States. Because there were no Chinese water snakes handy in the American West, many healers began using rattlesnakes to make their own versions of snake oil.
This set the stage for entrepreneur Clark Stanley, aka The Rattlesnake King. In an 1897 pamphlet about Stanley's life and exploits, the former cowboy claimed he had learned about the healing power of rattlesnake oil from Hopi medicine men. He never publicly mentioned Chinese snake oil at all. Stanley created a huge stir at the 1893 World's Exposition in Chicago when he took a live snake and sliced it open before a crowd of onlookers.
"[Stanley] reached into a sack, plucked out a snake, slit it open and plunged it into boiling water. When the fat rose to the top, he skimmed it off and used it on the spot to create 'Stanley's Snake Oil,' a liniment that was immediately snapped up by the throng that had gathered to watch the spectacle."
First, rattlesnake oil was far less effective than the original Chinese snake oil it was trying to emulate. A 1989 letter to The Western Journal of Medicine from psychiatrist and researcher Richard Kunin revealed that the Chinese oil contained almost triple the amount of a vital acid as did rattlesnake oil.
It was probably around then that snake oil became symbolic of fraud. Snake oil salesmen and traveling doctors became stock characters in American Westerns. The first written usage of the phrase appeared in Stephen Vincent Benet's epic 1927 poem John Brown's Body, when the poet refers to "Crooked creatures of a thousand dubious trades ... sellers of snake-oil balm and lucky rings." About 30 years later, playwright Eugene O'Neill referred to snake oil in his 1956 play The Iceman Cometh, when a character suggested that a rival was "standing on a street corner in hell right now, making suckers of the damned, telling them there's nothing like snake oil for a bad burn."
From predicting criminality to sexual orientation, fake and deeply flawed Artificial Intelligence (AI) is rampant. Amidst this feverishly hyped atmosphere, this book interrogates the rise and fall of AI hype, pseudoscience and snake oil. Bringing together different perspectives and voices from across disciplines and countries, it draws connections between injustices inflicted by inappropriate AI. Each chapter unpacks lazy and harmful assumptions made by developers when designing AI tools and systems, and examines the existential underpinnings of the technology itself to ask: why are there so many useless, and even dangerously flawed, AI systems?
1. Back in the days of America's Wild West, when cowboys roamed the range and people were getting themselves caught up in gunfights, a new phrase - 'snake oil' entered the language. It was a dismissive term for the patent medicines, often useless, sold by travelling traders who always claimed miraculous cure for everything from baldness to snakebite. Selling 'snake oil' was almost as risky as business as cattle stealing; you might be thrown out of town if your particular medicine, as you realized it would, failed to live up to its claims. Consequently, the smarter 'snake oil' sellers left town before their customers had much chance to evaluate the 'cure' they had just bought.
Around this same time-period, another method of advertising was also becoming more popular. Small paper cards (around 3x5 inches), known as "trade cards", were created to advertise patent medications, as well as clothing, food, and cosmetics. They were available from salesmen, at local pharmacies and general stores, or through the mail. Unlike traditional newspaper advertisements, trade cards were an innovation in advertisement due to their use of vibrant colors, the unrestricted variety of products promoted, and ease at which they were circulated to the public. They were often printed in color and were made to be highly collectable (Hale, 2000). In fact, by the turn-of-the-20th century, it was common for people to create scrapbooks to store and display the trade cards they had collected.
Key to their appeal, medical trade cards often contained imagery that was meant to connect with contemporary consumer tastes, such as flower bouquets, rosy-cheeked children, and animals. Unfortunately, some trade cards and other advertisements also depicted and perpetuated bias against women, as well as negative racial and ethnic stereotypes.
Overall, when the medical trade cards held by Weill Cornell were examined, several visual themes emerged. Healthy, happy babies and small children were often featured. The children featured were often girls, usually Caucasian and blonde. At times they were seen playing with other children, at other times they were alone looking quietly at the viewer. It seems as if many of these images were meant to evoke a feeling of innocence, and to help the viewer recall the energy or optimism of youth.
Animals were also commonly featured on these medical trade cards. Cats and kittens were some of the most prevalent animals shown. But birds, dogs, and horses were also depicted with regularity. When animals were included, they often were depicted in humors scenes meant to draw the viewer in to more closely connect with the medication advertised. Other times they were included to add a sense of realism and provide a calming glimpse of the countryside.
These were the sentiments that the manufactures of these patent medications wanted viewers to feel. By connecting their products to these pleasant images and emotions, these manufacturers wanted the public to see their products as desirable, as something to be purchased. Aside from using images to sell products, they were also used to entice people to collect and save trade cards. As women and children were the groups that most often collected these cards, historians have noted that their illustrations were created to most directly appeal to these individuals.
As the 20th century dawned, trade cards became less common. Part of this is attributed to changing tastes among the general public. Collecting trade cards fell out of fashion. As less people picked these advertisements up from local stores, manufacturers began increasing their advertisements within newspapers, magazines, and on billboards. In 1913, the radio was invented and soon advertising had a new method of connecting with the public.
Still, some of the innovations first seen in trade cards continued to be used in these new kinds of ads. This includes the use of catchy slogans, building of brand appeal, and showing images of what advertisers and manufacturers considered to be happy, healthy people. 2b1af7f3a8